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The Universe is a rotating Time-Torus-Universe (rTTU). This is an eternal rotation of events, without coming back in the same way. Events are recalculated during the rotation of the rTTU. The movement on time-lines in the rTTU generate an illisive space-time. So, forget the Big Bang! Moreover, space-time is very limited to travel in, because of the light-speed in the General Relativity Theory (GRT). This limitation can be violated in the rTTU. In the new Double Torus Theory (DTT) time is extended by time with  two time-dimensions smaller than the Planckscale (called 'refined time') , while also dark matter is implemented. I developed the theoretical formulations for it solely while not affiliated to any institution. One part of the formulations is that a new force performs a rotating dark matter-flow as a torus, which is balanced with the Newton-quantum-gravity. In this way the 'refined time' adds very tiny events to the quantum-dynamics. Therein a quantum-state is an undividible unit. However, in the DTT, a quantum-state is recalculated by the'refined events'. As a consequence the extra time-extension does make dark matter not a solid mass-particle, but made of a new type of neutrinos, called 'duonistic neutrinos'. This dark matter-composition (flow and duonistic neutrinos, two together) generates a force at sub-quantum level. The sub-quantum dark matter-force and the Newton quantum-gravity are combined in one formula. That is my new dark energy-force formula. For this reason dark matter becomes like 'time-densities', much more than like a solidmass- particle. Nevertheless I was able to translate this 'dark matter time-density' into a conventional energy-density, which appears to emerge a light-surface per second. Dark matter in this way indirectly generates approximately 4.45% visible mass in an space-time-world. This psace-time from GRT more an illusion, however not-fictive. The latest insight in kosmology is indeed that gravity is not fundamental. Time (extended with the 'refined time' smaller than the Planck-time) is dominant over the relative-time in the GRT. However, the GRT is implemented in the DTT. Eventually this emerges a new shape and dynamics for the universe as a rotating Time-Torus-Universe. An equivalent calculated value for the dark matter energy-density I formulated is 387 GeV per (3um)3. This also produces a flash as a light-surface per second. It is the premordial energy-signature of the in 2012 discovered Higgs-mass of 126 GeV per c2 , which is about 1/3 of the dark matter mass-density. The Higgsfield is a typical product of the Big Bang framework and performs in 3D-space and 1D relativity time which surrounds the area between the event-horizon and light-horizon of blackholes. In the DTT-framework the dark matter is based on dark matter-timedensitiy, which includes new dark energy defined by 2D time smaller than the Plancktime. Such a dark matter generates the fundamentality of mass,at the edge of any rotating time-torus. So, it is caused by a sub-quantumlevel. That's why it is capable of violating the undividibility of a quantum-unit. So far, this means, that existentiality in general (in a physical universe) happens at the edge of a rotating sub-time-torus as part of an overall Time-Torus-Uuniverse. Therefore it is important to switch the perception to implement current experments and observations that until now only support the Big Bang framework. I have a list of about 20 types of evidence, which prove the rTTU in the DTT. I invite scientist and science-magazines to contact me about this.
More background of the DTT.

Double Torus Theory (DTT): The Double Torus Theory (DTT) is the theory I started to work on in 2004. In 2009 I got email-support by Christopher Forbes (UK and member of the FRAS). He analyzed my new original 'dark-energy-force-formula' to adapt it to an existential universal dimension. Then I lost contact with him beginning 2011. From that moment on I wrote several articles solely about the Double Torus Universe, which were submitted to the vixra-archive (category: mathematical physics). The articles describe how a new dark energy force exists of a combination of quantum Newton-gravity and dark matter-force. These formulations show that the Big Bang does not exist, but is an illusionary universe within the Double Torus Universe. The DTT is wider and proclaims it is an eternally rotating universe. This is continuously recalculated by 'refined time'. Refined time here means: 2D-time extra and smaller than Planck-time. Such a 'refined time' is the limit for conventional time in the Big Bang Theory. 'Refined time' applied to new dark energy is described in the DTT. Still General Relativity Theory (GRT) and Quantum-Theory (QT) are maintained valid. However, traditional research and commercial journalism, can hardly imagine GRT and QT would exist in a new cosmological model as the DTT. 'Refined time' is applicable on dark matter! Scientist still doesn't understand what dark matter is. I found what it is by describing it in a totally new concept. Dark matter in the DTT means: No solid dark matter, but dark matter as 'time-densities'. Current theories can hardly believe dark matter without solid particles, but in the DTT new dark matter is based on that 'refined time'. 'Refined time' affects a new type of neutrinos (called 'duonistic neutrinos'in the DTT). On this point I refer to the tachyon-theory (Sudarshan and colleages, 1962) and axion-theory (Peccei-Quin 1977). Both are related to dark matter in the DTT. On one hand calculations made on both cross-reference-theories prove values for very small neutrino-masses 0.1 eV energy based on using the 2D-time smaller than the Planck-time, which matches an imaginary tachyon-mass prediction (faster than light with -0.11 eV energy being a neutrino), and on the other hand a value for axion-dark matter mass-density on 0,0843 GeV/cm3, - cross-references mention 0.05 GeV/cm3 - but my value is recalculated from the original and more dimensional dark matter time-densities, which can also be translated to an energy-density in the conventional Big Bang model. Thereby the axion-theory says: One axion will decay from out of 'the dark' (being not faster than light) into two gamma-photons, while maybe the sun produces these axions, and which collide on the earth's magnetic-field that faces the sun. However, crucial to understand in this case is: The tachyon is imaginary faster than light, but is a non-imaginary 'duonistic neutrino' in the DTT (however, also able to be faster than light, and even not faster than light). The 'duonistic neutrino'  therefore could become an axion (heavier than the 'duonistic neutrino'). Therefore we deal with states of dark matter. This dark matter is related to the combined force of quantum-gravity and dark matter-force in the DTT. 

The Double Torus Universe is topologically a second torus of 'refined time' enclosing and intertwining the inner dark matter torus.That  makes the torus of a 'double' shape. Pratically it is a rotating dark matter torus generating a visible material window of about an amount of 4.5%. Herewith the dark matter 'time-densities' affect the quantum-dynamics in a deeper layer of vacuum. These 'time-densities' perform a recalculation of the classic quantum-daynamics, which in turn rule about reality and the GRT. My formulation of the Newton quantum-force and new dark matter-force makes a complete new dark energy-force to exist in the DTT. Such is a different dark energy than the old dark energy in the GRT based on the 'cosmological constant', introduced by Albert Einstein in 1916. New dark energy-force eliminates the extreme large quantum vacuum-energy when calculated by the QT and if placed in the Double Torus Universe.

My formulations are more simple than the formulations from otther alternative (and current) theories. Still a cognitive perception of the universe changes it from a Big Bang Universe into a Double Torus Universe. How sad it is to notice the Big Bang is still promoted by institutional students as the 'truth' of a physics reality. Of course the GRT is important, but that it fits in a wider rotating time-torus universe, wherein the time smaller than the Planck-time is involved. I synthesized a lot of evidence-issues for the DTT, partially from my own formulations within the DTT-framework and partially from several experiments held in the past and recently. I sequentially wrote my articles about this, which can be studied n the vixra-archive. The articles chronologically make up piece by piece the total developement of my Double Torus Theory. I regurlarly add new articles to the vixra-archive. The development is not yet finished. I invite mathematicians to deliver a pure mathematical framework for the DTT. All my articles are registered without having transfered my author-rights and readable in the vixra. These article are also in my property as a complete set of personal printed article-collection. Since recently the author-rights of my vixra-articles are for sale.

One of my latest papers: www.vixra.org/abs/1501.0184     Overview papers: www.vixra.org/author/dan_visser


History. After it got a serious start in 2009 through the co-operation of Christopher Forbes (UK, PhD-math and phyics and Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society), the first articles were published in the vixra-archive. But I lost contact with him. At that time the framework was pre-mature and was called the 'Twin Tori Model'. After the loss of contact, I had developed the framework into a more dynamical-related hypothesis. I did this in an extremly solistic way, not affiliated to any institution, in order to prevent being blocked by non-independent thinking.

The end of Big Bang cosmology. Meanwhile it is known all over the place, that the truth of the Big Bang is heavily under fire. The reason: The chance of the 'right' cosmic inflation after the Big bang is extremely small (so everything is possible). This means: Also almost nothing is possible!! The analysis was made by several good-qualified theoretical and mathematical scientists, such as Roger Penrose and Paul Steinhard, and several others in the field of cosmology. However, the current astronomy- and lab-technology are hooked to the observations in a Big Bang Universe, where the assumption of (unknown) dark energy was made by the 'cosmological constant' of Albert Einstein). This vacuum-parameter would be the drive behind the acceleration of the spacetime-expansion. But why and how is unknown among Big Bang-thinkers. Even dark matter is still misunderstood. As a matter of fact: There is no theory that couples dark energy and dark matter in Big Bang cosmology.

Sub-quantum-time domain. But following my (new) equations, the universe could be very well have the shape of a Double Torus of dark energy and dark matter, both having the shape of torus: An inner-dark matter torus 'flowing' through a surrounding dark energy-time torus of refinement of extra-time. Here we talk about time considered as 'two extra time-clocks' from below the Planck-time limit. That is the (new) dark energy! It refines time effective on quantumgravity-dynamics. My framework implies the Big Bang can be replaced by a 'cyclic' dark flow of dark matter.

No Higgs. I think the 'Higgs-like particle-signal' is an expression of a dark matter force (see the special web-button 'No Higgs' at the left of the webpage). This fits in a new theory describing a new dark energy force in a new cosmology: The Double Torus Universe. In that theory the Big Bang doesn't exist. It is an optical illusion in the dynamics of the Double Torus Universe. Also cosmic inflation doesn't exists, supported by chance-calculations in mathematics, performed by R. Penrose, P. Steinhardt and N Turok. Also S. Hawking consequently negleted the existence of a Higgs-field. So, the fact  F. Englert (Belgium) and P. Higgs (schotland) received the Nobel-price for their efforts to find the reason for why partcles get mass, it does not garrantee that the CERN-teams indeed found a Higgs-particle for giving mass to other particles. Read the web-button: 'No Higgs'.

   DAN Visser and his New Cosmology:
Double Torus Universe.
The Double Torus Theory proves the universe is within another rotational universe.

We live in another type of universe than the Big Bang.

We are located in the Double Torus Universe. This is not a Big Bang universe. The Big Bang has a finite existence, because it once started in time and is heading destructively towards an empty universe through accelerated expansion of space and time. That perception is an illusion. The new dynamics of the Double Torus performs time smaller than the Planck-time applied on dark matter (sub-quantum-force), which is combined with quantum-Newton-force. This combination is a new dark energy force, which is different from the 'cosmological constant' Einstein used in his General Relativity Theory (GRT). The sub-quantum-force is much more detailed. The sub-quantum-force goes beyond the Quantum Theory (QT). That whole system causes a rotational universe, whereof the sub-quantum-force recalculates the quantum-dynamics (and thus the quantum-Newton-force). This might make you think we live in a 'spinning Big Bang', but that can easily be excluded, because theoretically dark matter reveals new characteristics. These imply a torus geometry with different gravitational dynamics than in the Big Bang universe. Expansion and attraction are both in balance between the sub-quantum-force and the Newton-quantum-force, such that a standard torus, or an apple-torus, or a peer-torus, and even 'two flat planes' theoretically may form a geometry. The reason that the torus is a 'double' torus, is because of the time smaller than the Planck-time participates next to standard time, independent on whether time is relative or not, and which encloses and intertwines the inner dark matter torus (see fig.1). The new characteristic of dark matter is: Dark matter is no solid particle (such as a wimps, an axions, or its own ant-particle). Dark matter is a time-density, which is equivalent to a time-cell with time faster than the light-clock in vacuum, and which also produces a light-flash per second to emerge the visible physics-world. This is the reason why particles, such as e.g. neutrinos, can sometimes gain velocity, which speed them up to velocities faster-than-light. Therefore I strongly plead for re-opening of investigations to measure neutrinos faster than light in vacuum, despite all the commotions in the press in September 2011 and February 2012.  In a Double Torus Universe dark matter are time-cells of time smaller than the Planck-time. In this way dark matter falso lows trough the universe as long the Newton-quantum-force is smaller than the dark matter force. A dark matter force is sub-quantum-forceThe details are described in a paper of mine of August 27 2014. In that paper I also solve the discrepancy of vacuum-energy-density calculated within QT and being extreme large compared to GRT-calculation. I immensly regret that the majority of the institutional cosmology is addicted to the Big Bang. This majority is losing the creativity to look ahead in science, and come with new ideas, think free, come with big questions. Increasing focus is directed to using old-science for paid presentations and applied technology. However, my personal theoretical research reveals: The Big Bang-cosmology can no longer be maintained as the current origin of the universe! We live in a rotational universe, which is an eternal universe of sub-quantum-recalculation. The details are to be found in www.vixra.org/author/dan_visserRead my last paper about the new dark matter paradigm (http://www.vixra.org/abs/1408.0188); or read one of my older 'papers', such as http://www.vixra.org/abs/1301.0158 .

The DTT had never a beginning and will never end.

Evidence: The evidence for my Double Torus Theory exists of calculations from my new equations and matches several experiments and astronomical observations. Thereby the willingness and acceptance by another interpretation is needed among institutional cosmologists and Physicists. This means not only interpretations within the Big Bang theory is important, but also interpretation from the point of view of the Double Torus Theory have to be considered. I was able to calculate results by a series of equations derived from my 'new dark energy-force formula'. These equations enabled me to express dimensionally a 'dark flow' and the existence of 'concentric circles' in the CMB, as well as a CMB-dipole (Cosmic Microwave Background).

Rotational CMB: The universe must be observed as a rotational CMB (see fig 1 and 2), because the CMB is part of the torus-rotation in the Double Torus Universe. This is a different perception than from Big Bang cosmology. In Big Bang cosmology a 'stationary CMB' is the afterglow from cosmic inflation after the Big Bang. However, that is a false representation of the origin of the universe! The Big Bang is an illusion due to the new dynamics from the Double Torus Universe. But note well, General Relativity stays valid. What is new is that additional time smaller than the Planck-time is applied to 'spatial dark matter'.

 (1)        (2)

Fig. 1: CMB-dipole (upside-down) detected by the Planck-satellite in 2013 (source ESA) and coded by me the way dark matter flows along through the torus. Mind the dark spot !

Fig. 2: The interpretation of that code into a rotational CMB of the Double Torus Universe (source: Dan Visser, Almere, the Netherlands).

3 4

Fig. 3 Concentric Circles are originally proposed in the CCC-theory of Penrose and Gurzadyan (source their article: Arxiv 1011.3706 Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC), which neglects a Big Bang because cosmic inflation is not needed). In total about 350 of these concentric circles are detected experimentally in the Boomerang- and WMAP-satellite data. But although they assumed these circles are due to super black hole collisons in an earlier universe with linear cyclic cosmology, I have reason enough to decide there picture can fit in the rotational closed-curved dark matter torus within the Double Torus Universe. This relates to recalculation of quantum-dynamics in an eternal Double Torus Universe. My new formula for dark matter force proves this dimensionally.

Fig 4: The analysis of the dimensions of the sub-quantum-dark-matter-force in the Double Torus Theory (source: Dan Visser, Almere, the Netherlands, email dan.visser@planet.nl .

New Dark Energy: My equation of the 'new Dark Energy Force' shows the origin is continuously the result of a recalculation of quantum-gravity. That recalculation is powered by sub-quantum-time only. The sub-quantum-time exists of two refined time-clocks smaller than the Planck-time. This might be controversial, but can no longer be neglected, because it follows from calculations made with my new equations. These calculations match experiments held in labs and astronomical observations. My new dark-energy-force-equation includes the force of quantum-gravity and dark matter force. The dark matter dimension shows dark matter is more a space-like feature than a dark matter mass-particle (so not a 'wimp'). The dark matter-force initiates a 'spatial dark flow'. So, that 'flow' comprehends about 96% physical events we are supposing not to see. These events carry other information than we are attaching to quantum-dynamics. I call the refined information "i"-formation. The other roughly 4% belongs to the visible detected information in the universe.

"i"-formation: The "i"-formation is observed in the early universe as part of a rotational CMB. The CMB firstly shows temperature-variations (belonging to the stationary way of observed CMB in Big Bang cosmology), but additionally more equal lower temperature-variations are present in the CMB as 'concentric circles' (fig. 3). This new phenomenon is derived in the Double Torus Theory. It is due to 'duonistic neutrinos', which are sub-quantum entangled by time smaller than the Plancktime. The 'duonistic neutrinos ' are different from sterile neutrinos. Sterile neutrinos are a typical Big Bang 'invention'.

Dark matter flow: The dark matter flow, which fleets all along the torus, rotates within a larger surrounding torus. That is the one of time smaller than the Planck-time. In principle this causes a super-large density of dark matter, which is fleeting towards an observer in the Double Torus. So, a dark matter-flow fleeting away from an observer shows a less large-density relative to the observer's location. The observer therefore watches a 'rotational CMB' of hotter temperature-variations in one side of the hemisphere. In the other half of the hemisphere the observer watches a fleeting-away of dark matter, causing cooler temperature-variations. This observation leads to a CMB-dipole (fig. 1). This is not theoretically stated, but proved by measurements of the WMAP- and the Planck-satellite (in 2003 and 2013).

Observer: This "fleeting-towards an  observer-effect" and "fleeting away observers-effect" might generate duplicate images of both dark matter flows. Such duplicate-images are also known at the gravitational lensing with large densities of galaxy-clusters. So, it is likely that multiple duplicates of gravitational-waves are being distributed all over the 'rotational-CMB'. This means there are no gravitational waves in the CMB due to the Big Bang followed by cosmic inflation. We cognitively live in a rotational Double Torus Universe! As I said: "The most incredible effect is generated by the sub-quantum-time and the 'duonistic neutrinos'. Both perform a refined dark flow, which cause 'concentric circles' in the rotational CMB (fig. 3).

My theory of the Double Torus Universe: There is an attachment to the 'concentric-circles' from the dynamics of time smaller than the Planck-time and dark matter. I show in the evidence that the accelerated space-expansion, that started 5-7 billion years after the Big Bang - inclusive its cosmic inflation - is an illusion due to the rotational characteristics of the dark matter-flow in the Double Torus Universe. This is shown in figure 4. As you can see the circles are produced by the dimensional dynamics of an other sort of dark matter, which is further explained in my vixra-articles. These dark matter-dynamics describe circular-velocity (which is spin on the surface of the innerside of the dark matter torus), while the dark matter torus rotates. The combined effect of the rotation and circular-velocity produce a lot of 'concentric circles' (large and small) and are to be seen in the CMB. This is the evidence for recalculation of the quantum-dynamics in the Double Torus Theory. The circles are indeed practically detected in the research of Penrose and Gurzadyan, despite they refer that to an other effect in their CCC-theory.


The Double Torus universe is a framework which is described by rather simply physics-mathemmatics and based on a new dark energy force formula derived from an extraordinary thought-experiment. This thought-experiment is explained seperately in one of the web-buttons left in this website. Shortly explained: Making temperature of different sized black holes (small and large) equal by a scaling-process to enable an observer to receive equal termic radiation from both in vacuum, results in a new dark energy-force that comprehends as well quantum-gravity as dark matter-force ruled by refined time (time smaller than the Planck-time). The scaling-process extends General Relativity Theory (GRT) to a Double Torus Universe.
Refined time.
The time-evolution in Double Torus Universe is differently from that in the Big Bang cosmology. In Big Bang cosmology the time-evolution is always going forward, just as in GRT (General Relativity) despite of being relative to a moving reference-system. But in the Double Torus Universe time is replaced by a refinement of time-smaller-than-the-Plancktime. This refinement is applied to a dark matter-force that recalculates quantumgravity. In the Double Torus framework dark matter looks more like a dark matter vacuum-particle than a dark matter-particle in vacuum.
Big Bang accelerated space-expansion is an optical illusion in the Double Torus Universe.
My set of equations in the Double Torus framework reveals accelerated space-expansion (discovered in 1998) appears to be an optical illusion!! This is caused by two accelerations expressed in the dimension of  the dark matter-force. Th dark matter-force is a part of the new dark energy force formula together with the force of quantumgravity. One can imagine the way was thought the sun  was moving around the earth ages ago, the insight the earth is moving around the sun was enlighting the soul. That kind of dynamics-interpretation in a  similar way reveals the Big Bang is part of a rotational Double Torus Universe. The word 'Double' points to a larger torus of refined time that encloses and intertwines a smaller inner dark matter-torus.
Phylosophy of past and future changes.
Lately I also derived a set of equations to describe the 'DAN-energy' and 'DAN-constant', which prove specific calculations can be performed for particle-energy-densities like neutrinos. That considers time close to, equal or smaller than the Plancktime. From this perspective I calculated neutrinos, which are empowered by this refined time in the Double Torus framwork. These results change the philosophy of time completely, beacuse past- and future-events become part of a rotational Double Torus Universe, wherein the GRT can also be violated. That doesn't mean the GRT would be replaced. On the contrary, GRT remains a normal part of the Double Torus cosmology. However, time will be active in a sub-quantum-level and affect quantum-gravity where Relativity ends !! I succeeded in doing that by my latest set of equations to bring them in combination of my (new) dark energy force-formula and a rather new energy-formula for entropy-gravity. That result reveals the afore mantioned 'DAN-energy' and the 'DAN-constant'. These energy-formulations enabled me to calculate the neutrino high-energy and appeared to match the detection-value by the IceCube-detector in Antartica. It also enabled me to prove neutrino-rest energy of 2.2 eV and  0.1 eV, respectively existing behind the event-horizon of a black hole, to be 1/21 and 1/100 of the Plancktime. This is smaller than the Plancktime. So that violates the GRT! The GRT is limited to the event-horizon of a black-hole, There the Planck-time is the lowest limit for time in Big Bang cosmology. But as explained: Time is extended by refined time in the Double Torus Universe.
Dark Matter and Dark Matter Flow.
After I described dark matter as time-cells faster than a light-clock in vacuum on August 27 2014, I decided to maintain this chapter for flash-back. Yet I continuosly described and calculated dark matter in an unconventional way, and not related to Big Bang cosmology. I used formulations, which belongs to the Double Torus framework. In a first calculation I found 2.8 KeV/c2 per 0.5 x 10-44 m2. I compared this to the most recent LUX detection-project for WIMP-dark matter, which estimates a limit of 33 GeV/c2 per cross-section of 7.6 x 10-48 cm2, which is 7.6 x 10-52 m2 . This is about 5 KeV/c2 per 0.5 x 10-44 m2. So my calculation is just a factor 2 less. Later-on I calculated dark matter with extended formulations within the Double Torus framework for specific circumstances of satelliets feeling extra gravity. Then the value became 1560 GeV per m3 (per kg2 en per ms-2 ). This value is for a dark matter energy-density FLOW around the earth. These calculations are based on results coming from Fly-By- en GPS-satellites and were put in perspective of my Double Torus formulations. As one can see the latter value is per three-dimensions and not per surface as with LUX [1]. That is the reason, I my view, LUX did not detect any dark matter, but only could set a new limit-value for it. However, in January 2014  a new experiment started, called the DarkSide-50, which is held deep down under the San Grasso mountains in Italy. This experiment aims to measure WIMPs. But Wimps are super-symmetric related, while super-symmetry is officilally ruled out by earlier CERN-experiments. So what can we expect from the DarkSide-50 experiment? Look at the figure in one of mine reference-papers about dark matter (the way I described it at that time) and make your own conclusion. Stil ithat is actual, even after my paper of August 27 2014, where a three dimensional halo of dark matter can only be measured in energy per time-volume and a light-flash per second, but not WIMPs. Read the last paper in the overview of my papers.(www.vixra.org/author/dan_visser).
[1] Reference my paper: www.vixra.org/abs/1401.0107 .

The BICEP2-telescope at the Southpole has given no evidence for cosmic inflation and Big Bang.

The announcement of the BICEP2-telescope in the South-pole explicitly does NOT proof cosmic-inflation and the Big Bang. The euphoria about proof for the Big Bang is not only premature, but also other possibilities are possible. The telescope used detecting of polarization of primordial light. Polarization of primordial light is in fact an electromagnetic ‘twist’ in light-waves coming from the early universe (called B-mode), whatever this early universe may be. But there are many other possibilities too, which can possibly produce gravitational waves. One of them I already explained: My Double Torus Theory. However, if you are still addicted to the Big Bang these gravitational waves are indirectly assumed to be existential.  But let us be really cognitive here! Indirect-proof fill in our fantasies!! Thus BICEP2 cannot conclude to have proof for cosmic inflation, neither for the existence of the Big Bang! Several physicists, including appeared to be right!

Read more in the reference article: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2014/sep/22/bicep2-gravitational-wave-result-bites-the-dust-thanks-to-new-planck-data

The case, as the above reference paper showed is, however, deadly wrong for BICEP2. Moreover, there is also knowledge of the existence of 'radio loops'. 'Radio loops' can be produced by supernovae and are also electromagnetic waves, which could generate polarized light. That could produce polarization in the foreground space-time and be of influence on the small CMB-part whereof BICEP2 could have extracted its 'signals'. So the BICEP2-signals could be disturbed by a 'foreground source'.

Furthermore the institutional physicists Sarkar and Spergel, and cosmologist Peter Coles (UK) pointed at the fact only frequency-irrespective existence of primordial gravitational waves in the CMB are subject of serious conclusions. In this respect the Planck-satellite  had a look at the polarizations too, but with correlated frequencies. These results are yet to come and will widen the insights of the right perception on the universe. But thereby my Double Torus Theory is an additional new perception that cannot be neglected. When taken into account other possibilities of large and strong primordial gravitational waves to be generated from an earlier universe, this can also be the case as described in Conformal Cyclic Cosmology by R. Penrose and V.G. Gurzadyan. In that theory the cosmic inflation is not needed and the Big Bang does not exist. But further study of the Double Torus Theory learns that CCC-theory is curved into my torus-concept. That as you may have understood has led to a rotational universe where proof for gravitational waves emerge from a dark matter flow related to quantum Newton-force.

Additionally my vixra-articles  show evidence for the existence of a Double Torus Universe. In this theory General Relativity remains valid. The extension is recalculation through refined time smaller than the Planck-time is a must! Still many science-institutes glorify Big Bang cosmology. Their institutional members deliberately remain in heavy denial about a real new perception. Probably because a lot of money and prestige is involved. But forget the Big Bang.

An overview of my articles is presented in: http://vixra.org/author/dan_visser. 
DAN's New Cosmology


Dark Matter mass. A dark matter particle theoretically should have a mass of 2.8 KeV/c2 located at a scale of 10-22 m. So, it may be clear dark matter is very hard to detect in an earthy-laboratories. Mostly it consists of space instead of matter. Such a dark matter-density is 71 gram per 1 million-kilometer according to the Double Torus hypothesis. This is a very small mass-amount per distance. A distance about 3 times the distance Earth to Moon. I a later stage I calculated dark matter mass energy-density on 1560 GeV per m3 (per kg2 and per ms-2) around the earth, which is a flow, for Fly-By and GPS-satellites. LUX estimates dark matter in the lab on 33GeV per 7.6 x 10-48 cm-2, which is a static value, but didn't detect anything.

Discrepancy vacuum energy-density solved. I made two calculations. One a while ago and one in my paper of August 27 2014. According to the old one the quantum-theory vacumm-energy-density is factor 10122 larger compared with a calculation made in GRT. This factor is decreased by 10-116 when calculated directly by the (new) 'dark energy force' and 10-114 when calculated by the ratio of (new) dark energy amount and dark energy force". From these calculations follow that vacuum-energy-density is the same as determined by the calculation from General relativity at about 10-8 [Joule per cubical meter]. From this can be derived that the dark matter-density is multiplied by the visible matterdensity as 10-6 .10-2 = 10-8 [Joule per cubical meter], because the scattering-chance of electrons is 1/100. Hence, the scattering-chance of dark matter must be 1 per 1 million. My paper of August 27 2014 I directly calculate this according to a new formulation of dark matter.

Neutrinos-faster-than-light is still a real option after all the commotion in 2012. The (new) 'dark energy force' and the (new) 'dark energy-time' show neutrino-velocity is still an option to go-faster-than-light (thus: violating Relativity). However, note carefully, this is not necessarily the case. It depends on the 'excitation of the dark matter force in the dark energy force formula'. The dark matter-force could affect moving neutrinos. However, as soon the 'dark matter force' takes over from the 'Newton-quantumgravity' it affects the velocity of the neutrinos. From my equations and calculations follow some neutrinos can be faster than light within the margins 62 nsec.In this respect I am convinced the CERN-Opera and -Atlas projects have to repeat their experiments over and over again, depite the commotion in the press in 2011 and 2012. They have to challenge the ICARUS-conclusions again. One of my earlier 'vixra-papers' presents this theoretical prediction. My paper of August 27 2014 recalculates this from new formulation of dark matter.

Calculations within the Double Torus hypothesis.

Thought-experiment of 2004. My (new) dark energy force-formula is the result from my’ thought-experiment’ of April 4 in 2004. Starting to use Hawking's prediction of 1974, that large blackholes could evaporate very slowly while a smallest blackholes, like a Planck-hole, would evaporate in a flash !! Then I created a method for a ‘scaling-away principle’. That principle was based on 'scaling away from each other' a small - and large blackhole, while any observer in the universe remained capable of observing the unchanged entropy of these blackholes because of the scaling-away. In fact it says: The observer receives equal amounts of evaporation-radiation from the both black holes at the same time. Then I combined the 'scaling away the largest of the black holes' by melting them together too. This was translated in a combination of a temperature-related equation for any observer to detect. Such a 'scaling away-principle' is justified from a point of cognitive reasons, because I am part of the universe and so my consciousness is. I forced a connection between conservation of entropy by expansion. That a caused a "- "sign in my dark energy-force formula.
Detailed analysis. Hawking stated the evaporation-radiation was assumed to be thermic-radiation, but I preferred it to name it 'dark information', because my  ‘scaling-away-principle’ changed the 'dark-information' at the surface of both blackholes. The 'scaling away-principle' (defined with a "-" sign), and combined with melting together the black holes would initiate a 'new force’. This (new) 'force' should represent directly a 'dark-information-change'. Then from the combination of both that principles I derived two equations to determine the 'dark-information-change' . So, substitution of the related temperature into that change was the solution to mark the dynamics of that 'dark information'. I named this my (new) 'dark energy force'. This 'new force' should comprehend a 'time-force' that could refine the Planck-time. The corresponding mathematical exercises was done with simple mathematics. That became 'my thought-experiment'. The result was my new)'dark energy force formula'. That formula covered the dynamics of quantum-gravityforce and quantum-dark matterforce . The latter can generate quantumgravity as well as quantum-expansion.
General mathematical expression. My (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’ was picked-up from my website by Christopher Forbes (UK), PhD Math-and-Physics, also a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Academy. Christopher found a general mathematical equation for my formula !! But also a new amount of dark energy followed from it. (with a "-"-sign) So, these results were published on September 1 2009 in a co-operative 'paper' in the Vixra-archive. After I lost contact with him I developed my formula in a solistic way, not being affiliated to any institution. Afterwards I published my 'original' 'dark energy force-formula' in retrospective to the Vixra-archive (reference http://vixra.org/abs/1010.0013). Since then, many of my 'papers' followed. The original plan was that Christopher developed a Triple Torus Topology ('triple', because he wanted to describe the mathematical boundaries that had to determine the physical boundaries). That would have been named the Forbes-Visser Model (F-V model). However, the communication-loss between him and me remained untill the day of today. Meanwhile my developement of the dynamics of my 'Double Torus hypothesis' was continued. I developed a new dynamics in the physis Double Torus. Up to now this is officially a hypothesis, but several examples of evidence have been established, which seem to prove the Dubbel Torus is no longer a hypothesis, but a real pysical model for the universe.


My Thought-experiment of 2004.